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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

despotism is to dread any independent or partly independent
control within its own limits, even if that be restricted locally
and in its amount. The instinct of such a government, even
when paternal, is to distrust the capacity of any smaller com-
munity to do anything for itself without first obtaining leave.
If a country were left to itself, the towns would inevitably
have some kind of law and administration of their own. But
there would be a danger of a great splitting up of territory,
which would, by its lawlessness, end in tyranny and centraliza-
tion, or, by its want of common law and control, prevent
perfect freedom of intercourse. This extreme, we must con-
fess, would be worse than the other, which makes intercourse
and life safe by the power of a common master. The early
tyrannies were blessings to the world by uniting small com-
munities, but is there not a more excellent way than either ?
There is, we think, a more excellent way. It is to unite
union of local and general government and local self-government
general government  jn   ^   due   proportions   ancj   SQ   f^at   they   shall
not interfere with one another. But this balance between the
powers of the state and of a city or town, a creature of the
state, must be confessed to be as difficult, if not more difficult
than that between the state and the confederation in a federal
Here it seems necessary before we proceed further to en-
Centrai and dis- deavor to make the proper distinctions between
•tribute power, centralization and distribution of power. De
Tocqueville, honored alike at home and with us, in his Democ-
racy in America, makes two kinds of centralization ; one in
which the power controlling the general interests is centred in
one place or in the same persons so as to constitute a central
government; the other the power which directs partial or
local interests and proceeds from a central administration. If
a central government, he continues, is united to administrative
centralisation, its powers thus acquired are immense. These
two kinds of centralization must not be supposed to be insepa-